Here’s an easy Control Charts Study Guide for you. x-bar, R charts (UPL, CL, LCL) Purpose of R-chart Shows sample ranges over time (difference between smallest and largest values in sample), monitors process variability, independent from process mean. CONTROL CHARTS . DPU evaluates the average number of units carrying one or more defects. “p” and “np” control charts. Defects per opportunity (DPO) and per million opportunities (DPMO) A DPU of 0.478 for an automobile is viewed very differently than the same per-unit defect rate on a bicycle. Use c-charts to control the number of defects per unit of output. When sampling is costly, when within-sample variation is negligible, or when the detection of “small” process changes is unnecessary, charts of … For example, monitoring number of survival patients per year is more practical than monitoring how long patient can survive which usually uses continuous control charts (Bain & Engelhardt, 1992). The c-Chart is also known as the Number of Defects or Number of Non-Conformities Chart. Horizontal axis for sample number or sub-group value. P charts are utilized where there is a pass / fail determination on a unit inspected. The C chart is an industry standard for monitoring and controlling process outputs over time. Let us also try to understand what the word ‘Unit’ means in Six Sigma methodology. M = number of inspection units per sample interval. Control charts are one of the hardest things for those studying six sigma to understand. Lecture 11: Attribute Charts EE290H F05 Spanos 1 P-chart (fraction non-conforming) C-chart (number of defects) U-chart (non-conformities per unit) The rest of the “magnificent seven” Control Charts … center line: C. lower control limit: C - 3*C 1/2. The area of opportunity must be the same over time. Definition for Defects per Unit (DPU): The number of defects divided by the number of products.Example: If there are 34 defects in 750 units DPU will be 34 divided by 750 is equal to 0.045. The range is the difference between the highest and lowest number in the sample. Control charts involving counts can be either for the total number of non conformities (defects) for the sample of inspected units, or for the average number of defects per inspection unit. The area of opportunity must be the same over time. 2. Consider an automobile for example. diameter in 3 places) – Units produced during the same cycle from different cavities, machining locations, filling heads, etc. If you want to manage the numbers of defects and can keep the sample size consistent, record only the number of defects and use the c Chart. The centerline, calculated at 1.870, indicates an overall average process performance of 1.87 defects per form. Target or Avg. The charts are very effective indicators of problems in the process and also indicate when the problems have been cleared. Use C charts for processes in which the measurement system is only capable of counting the number of defects in a sampled unit. Poisson approximation for numbers or counts of defects mean line, UCL and LCL Line. In statistical quality control, the u-chart is a type of control chart used to monitor "count"-type data where the sample size is greater than one, typically the average number of nonconformities per unit.. c Assess number of defects per part (i.e., each part can have multiple defects) = 1 Poisson u Assess number of defects per part when sample size > 1 > 1 Poisson The c and u charts are utilized when a product can have multiple defect opportunities. This chart plots the numbers of defects with 3-sigma control limits: The lines are located at: upper control limit: C + 3*C 1/2. ‘c’ stands for ‘Count’. The area of opportunity can vary over time. 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