Anthropological scientists who study “caveman” nutrition theorize that our ancestors consumed much more omega-3 fats than we currently do and that many of our modern-day ailments, such as heart disease and Alzheimer’s, may stem from low omega-3 fat intake. Discipline your intake takes a big part of this, so don’t underestimate the on-time schedule. As a rule of thumb, consume an amount of carbs based on your body weight. Moderation is all about regulating or controlling your daily food intake. Good portions of these oils can also be found in eggs from flax- or fish-fed chicken. But, if you are leading an active lifestyle, running, and/or doing other forms of exercise, your daily energy needs will go up. Also, be sure to opt for a variety of different foods from within the food categories themselves to keep your daily menu interesting and provide you with a wide range of macro-and micronutrients. A female runner’s daily meal plan should include three meals and at least two snacks. Nuts, including almonds, pecans, pine, peanuts, cashews, and pistachios. The rich red in pomegranate comes from anthocyanins, the deep red in tomatoes comes from lycopene, and the bright orange in sweet potatoes comes from beta-carotene. I enjoy the process of cooking and usually only spend 30-45 minutes preparing dinner. T his meal plan would include more brown rice, quinoa, oats, etc. Every person has a set amount of calories that they need to consume each day in order to keep their current weight. G.I. Once you have figured your carb-to-protein-to-fat proportions, it’s time to pay attention to the food itself. If you weigh 180 pounds and engage in relatively intense endurance exercise, running, and cross-training for at least one to two hours every day, then you’d need something in the range of 450 to 900 grams of carbs each day. Research indicates that they reduce the level of harmful cholesterol (LDL) and boost the level of the healthy kind, or what’s known as HDL. A nutritious, balanced diet of wholegrains, lean protein, fruits and … As a rule of thumb, leave, at least, two to three hours between eating and running, depending on the content and size of the meal. One of Logan’s favorite training dinners is a quick and simple grain bowl, which can be customized based on whether you eat meat or not. The production of antibodies that fight infections, 6 ounces of fish, salmon or cod = 40 grams, 4 ounces of fresh, Atlantic farmed, salmon = 25 grams, One ounce of broiled, beef, Sirloin steak = 8 grams, One ounce of baked, roast, beef = 8 grams, One ounce of, dark meat, chicken = 7 grams, One ounce of, white meat, chicken = 7 grams, One slice of roasted turkey breast = 5 grams, Once ounce of roasted almonds = 6.2 grams, One ounce of roasted pistachios = 5 grams, One cup of regular, non-fat, yogurt = 11 grams, Two tablespoons of peanut butter = 8 grams, Saturated fats contain high amounts of hydrogen, but no double bonds, and tend to be solid at room temperature, whereas. In the meantime, thank you for dropping by. runners diet. Here is the oversimplified formula for figuring out your weekly running energy expenditure: Weekly Energy Expenditure = Weekly Mileage X Calorie Burn per Mile. Replace foods rich in saturated and trans fats, such as whole milk, butter, and baked foods with food rich in unsaturated fats (check the list above). I hate to sound like a broken record, but not all carbohydrates are created equal. These stores act as fuel to make energy—just like high-octane unleaded gas. The results of these studies also explain why taking a single pigment, such as beta-carotene in supplement form, doesn’t lead to the same health improvements as eating the whole foods and may even increase your risk for some diseases. Here are some of the healthiest sources to include in your diet. Runner’s meal plan Whether you're training for a 5k or running a marathon, it's important to refuel. Over the past decade, researchers have unfolded a fish story of grand proportions: People who eat fish and other seafood a few times per week have a lower risk of sudden heart attack, vascular disease, and stroke. Should Runners Bother Doing a Farmer’s Walk? And since most pigments act as antioxidants, they can help reduce inflammation caused by disease or heavy exercise. In today’s +7000-word post, I’ll delve deep into the basics of proper runners diet for beginners. Following a meal plan like the one below will be ideal for a typical week's training, but both pre- and post-event carbohydrate loading is recommended in order to maximise the muscle and liver carbohydrate stores. Black Bean Burrito: For a tasty black-bean burrito, put one cup black beans, two tablespoons salsa, one-ounce soy cheese, chopped tomatoes, and cilantro on a whole-wheat tortilla. Whether from a cow, a goat, or even a reindeer, mammal milk (as opposed to soy milk) and other dairy products, like cheese, yogurt, and kefir, should be a part of every runner’s diet. Use the guidelines below to guesstimate your general daily needs. Just because incomplete proteins are, incomplete, doesn’t make them inferior, nor does it mean that you can’t get sufficient complete proteins from a plant-based diet. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Milk products also contain stearic acid, which is thought to improve blood-cholesterol levels. Healthy fats are an important part of a runner’s diet, and you should aim to get about 20% of your daily caloric intake from healthy fats. This means that you can consume filling amounts and satisfy your hunger, but not worry about throwing your whole nutrition balance and calorie intake out of whack. When you start running, the glycogen stores are converted into energy that contracts the working muscles. Disclaimer: Before you go any further, I’d like for the record to clearly state that I’m not a certified nutritionist or dietitian. Fried foods (mainly fried chicken, French fries, chicken nuggets, and breaded fish), One cup of whipping, heavy cream = 88 grams, One cup of whole Filberts (hazelnuts) = 84 grams, One cup of dry and roasted cashews = 63 grams, One cup of dry, roasted, whole, almonds = 47 grams, Two tablespoons of smooth peanut butter = 17 grams, Two tablespoons of creamy or smooth peanut butter = 16 grams, One ounce of dry roasted peanuts = 14 grams, Two tablespoons of reduced fat, peanut butter = 12 grams, One tablespoon of regular butter = 11 grams, ½ cup of evaporated whole milk = 10 grams, One tablespoon of almond, hazelnut, walnut, and truffle oils = 13 grams, One tablespoon of soybean, olive, canola, safflower, corn and sesame oils = 13 grams, Once ounce of dark; 70%, chocolate = 12 grams, One ounce of extra black 82%, chocolate = 10.5 grams, One ounce of regular cream cheese = 10 grams, One ounce of America, processed, cheese = 9 grams, One tablespoon of whipped butter = 8 grams, One cup of regular chocolate milk = 8 grams, One ounce of shelled and cooked peanuts = 7 grams, One ounce of whole mike mozzarella = 6 grams, ½ cup of cottage regular cottage cheese = 5 grams, One cup of low-fat chocolate milk = 5 grams, Two tablespoons of reduced fat peanut butter = 2.5 grams, One cup of almond of, low-fat, almond milk = 2.5 grams, ½ cup of 2% low-fat cottage cheese = 2 grams. ½ cup of cooked greens or orange veggies (spinach, broccoli, or carrot) = 20 grams, ½ cup of cooked pasta, rice, quinoa, or polenta = 15 grams, 1/2 cup of cooked or dried beans, peas, and lentils = 15 grams, One medium banana, orange, or apple = 12 to 15 grams. While a vegetarian lifestyle can also be quite healthy, studies suggest that diets balanced with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean cuts of meat help lower blood-cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and heart-disease risk. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, you should limit your saturated fat intake to no more than 7 percent of your total calorie intake. A Healthy Diet for Runners: Meal Plan Week 4; A Healthy Diet for Runners: Meal Plan Week 2; A Healthy Diet for Runners: Meal Plan Week 6; A Healthy Diet for Runners: Meal Plan … Drop the peeler. Why the Middle of a Run Always Feels the Toughest, This Treadmill Is More Than $1,500 Off at Walmart. Also, these carbs are made from longer molecules chains than their simple counterpart. So, for instance, if you weigh 160 pounds, you would want to consume about 100 to 130 grams of protein per day. Here is a list of the nine amino acids we can get only from diet: isoleucine, histidine, methionine, lysine, threonine, valine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and phenylalanine. Also known as the bad carbohydrates, simple carbs include all the monosaccharides—containing one sugar unit, and disaccharides—containing two sugar units. These score high in disease-fighting and illness-preventing antioxidants, like vitamin E, etc. To consume enough protein to support her training, recovery, and overall health, Jane would be looking to ingest about 120 to 150 grams of the macronutrient every day. And for anyone watching his or her weight, studies have shown that dieters who include dairy in their low-calorie plans lose more fat than those who simply cut calories. Dietary fats can be broken down into two broad categories, based on their biochemical structure and their impact on the body: saturated and unsaturated. Unlike the mono kind, polyunsaturated fatty acids tend to be liquid both at room temperature and in the refrigerator. As a result, when you consume incomplete proteins, your body cannot fully use them during protein synthesis. The remaining 13 amino acids are produced by our bodies. Marathon Training Meal: homemade pizza, sauteed beef, bok choy, black beans, mixed vegetables in coconut oil. For that reason, these carbs are usually referred to as empty calories. Aim for at least 30 to 40 grams of carbohydrates one to two hours before running. It’s never nice to have a funny tummy during a workout. Mar 12, 2009 ; Veggie Burger: Put one garden burger with a higher protein content than 15 grams on a whole-grain bun, with sliced tomato and onion. During the recovery window, your muscles are primed to receive and use up nutrients to repair and replenish itself from the damage experienced while running. These comprise all the lipids found in plant and animal tissue, which are consumed as food. If you don’t have the time (or the stomach) for a full breakfast, then experiment with eating a small piece of fruit, a smoothie, or a hypertonic sports drink, before heading out. Fruits and vegetables also fill you up with few calories, helping you maintain your weight. Calculate calorie intake first, then break it down it into the right proportions (do the same thing with the other macros). Research shows that consuming these fats improve cholesterol levels, which can reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. Aiding in hormone productions—mainly estrogen and testosterone, Helping control inflammation and blood clotting. Also known as hydrogenated fats, trans fats are a chemically produced form of fatty acids. For a 135-pound female runner training 11 hours per week, go for a breakfast consisting of 2 cups of whole-grain cereal with low-fat milk and 12 ounces of orange juice. That’s one of the reasons designing nutrition plans is tricky. Here are a few of the main functions of fat: Good fats are what’s known as unsaturated fats. Eat five different colored fruits and vegetables daily. There’s a broad range of nutrients we need, but in general, the main ones, what’s known as macronutrients, can be broken down into three categories: Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Marathon Runners Diet Plan Example Following is a sample day from while I was running 50 miles per week, strength training 3 days and worked with someone to figure out how to keep my energy steady. The key, … The Exact Runners Diet Diet Breakdown As a general rule, a healthy diet should be (1) high in the complex carbohydrates, (2) moderate in lean protein, and (3) sufficient in healthy fats. You should also note that the omega-3s in fish have anti-inflammatory capabilities, giving them the potential to counter exercise-induced muscle soreness and help alleviate diseases such as psoriasis. Balanced eating is not your typical trendy, yo-yo, or crash diet. These “sugars” can be divided into two main forms: the simple and the complex. Here's the plan for week 1. Research shows that consuming protein within the recovery window can speed up glycogen synthesis. 1 cup canned light fruit salad (or 1 cup fresh) Large salad (2 cups) of mixed greens and your favorite raw veggies. But new studies suggest that the pigments in produce need to interact with other color compounds in fruits or vegetables to produce their beneficial effects, which is why it’s important to eat a wide variety of colors every day. Five servings of fruits. Primary sources of complete proteins include animal products. The following three-day meal plans that Pam designed reveal the smart food choices that will keep you satisfied, trimming down--and running strong. How we test gear. This is the case whether you’re running to lose weight, to run a race, or just to be in shape. Now that you know all you need to know about the building blocks of a runners diet, let’s see how can you put it into practice. 18 Strategies For Safely Running In The Summer, Ketosis Symptoms – The 7 Main Signs That You’re In Ketosis, The Beginner’s Guide To The Ketogenic Diet, The complex carbohydrates—the polysaccharides (mostly starches and fiber), and. More specifically, saturated fats are fatty acids in which all carbon atoms are bonded to hydrogen atoms. That’s why I highly urge you to continue your education and learn more about the subject. Compared with their stockyard-raised, corn-fed counterparts, free-range, grass-fed animals may contain more omega-3 fats and less artery-clogging saturated fats due to their healthier diets and higher activity levels. Ample research also suggests that regular dairy consumption can lower your blood pressure and your risk for heart disease. Just keep in mind that the average American average intake hovers around 35 percent, according to survey. Think of carbohydrates as your body’s primary source of crude oil. Produce skin is also rich in resistant starches and various types of fiber. Please feel free to leave your comments and questions in the section below. As I have previously mentioned, many factors affect calorie burn while running. Meet Anna: check out her Vegan Runner Meal Plan “My overall strategy is to incorporate at least one serving of carbs, proteins, and fats into each of my meals. This is especially the case during long and hard training sessions. All you need to do is combine different plant-based food to help provide your body with the proper balance (and amount) of essential amino acids. Simple carbs are low in fiber and nutrients and offer little more than calories regarding overall nutrition. This is the bare minimum required to fuel your brain, central nervous system, and red blood cells. Fish, chicken, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, low-fat dairy, fruit—these healthy staples provide more nutritional value than highly processed options. You can learn all about how you should be eating while training for a marathon in the EAT LIKE A MARATHONER Course or over on our page on Marathon Nutrition. Of course, protein bars and calcium-fortified juices seem like a convenient way to take in all of the 50-plus nutrients every runner needs daily. Friday’s meal plan. In fact, most nutrition experts would agree that variety is one of the cornerstones of good quality, well-rounded diet. Grape skins, for example, are high in resveratrol, and onion skins contain quercetin, both of which can help lower your risk of heart disease and colon and prostate cancer, and boost your immunity. Just as it is important to follow a well-rounded running, it is essential to fuel your body well. I also add in various fruits and veggies to ensure I hit all my nutritional needs throughout the day. What is usually referred to as dietary fats in the fitness and diet circles is actually a class of substances called lipid. a study published in the “Journal of Nutrition” revealed that, the more varied your food choices, the more likely you’re to get proper amounts of nutrients and fiber. Fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, cultured milk, and kefir, contain live bacteria, which also bolster immune health. But, in general, these fatty acids are the only of the four types of fatty acids that are man-made. That might sound like a good thing, but there is, as we are going to learn shortly, a huge downside to it. For those who can’t have dairy, non-dairy milks—almond, oat, and soy, for example—are good alternatives, although they do not have the same nutritional profile as dairy milk, and you may need to supplement with vitamin D or calcium. Mono oils are usually liquid at room temperature, but start to harden at refrigerator temperature. … And these two minerals are simply better absorbed by the body when they come from meat instead of nonmeat sources. You already know that eating fruits and veggies supplies your body with vitamins, minerals, and the carbs it needs to fuel your running. Dairy supplies your hardworking muscles with an ample amount of protein to help speed recovery. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at, 10 Tips for Getting Back into Running Shape, In Defense of Low-Intensity, Steady-State Cardio, How to Handle Running in Hot, Humid Weather, 7 Exercises You Need to Do For Stronger Hips. Plus, preparing meals from real-food sources gives you more control over your sodium, fat, and calorie intake. Your 7-Day Meal Plan. The three basic rules for a healthy runner’s diet are: Balance is the first step toward nice things in this world. [Substitute strawberries with blueberries, raspberries, or blackberries.] If your main fitness goal is to increase strength or improve endurance level shoot for a daily calorie “surplus” of roughly 250 to 350 calories above your maintenance level. Here are some of the most common recommendations. Assisting in the protection and the insulation of vital internal organs in the form of adipose fat, which your stored fat. Chemically, carbohydrates are organic molecular compounds made from three elements: carbon (C), hydrogen, and oxygen (H2O), with a ratio of hydrogen twice that of oxygen and carbon. Here is the simple formula for determining your carb needs in grams: Multiply the average number of calories you consume in a day by 0.55 to 0.65 (the lower and upper limit of carb consumption). A Healthy Diet for Runners: Meal Plan Week 1. Protein itself is composed of 22 types of amino acids—all of which are crucial for normal functioning. Your diet, after all, is as important as your training. From apples and black beans to red potatoes and zucchini, plants’ outer skins protect them from UV light, parasites, and other invaders. That translates to 65 to 75 grams of fat a day. But whey protein, the specific type of protein found in dairy foods, may also help strengthen the immune system. Carbohydrate is the body’s primary fuel for endurance training, so as training volume increases you need more to keep your stores topped up. Within the body, vitamins, minerals, and other essential nutrients work together with literally thousands of other compounds, such as color components in fruits and vegetables, special starches and fibers in whole grains, and unique fats in seeds, nuts, and dairy. Long distance runners generally do not carry a deal of muscle mass, but will have strong leg tendon strength and excellent fitness. This is what’s referred to the Calorie Maintenance Level in the fitness circles, and is the number of calories your body will use up to support your metabolic rate and regular daily activities. Some are complete whereas others are incomplete. Peanut butter. The longer and/or harder you run, the more glycogen you use up. Should You Eat Before a Run or Head Out on Empty? And for that reason, you need more protein than the average Joe and Jane. By Meal plan created by Barbara Berkeley, MD. Consume 30 to 40 grams of carbohydrates for every 45- to 60-minute of exercise. Variety is the spice of life, and is definitely a significant goal and milestone when it comes to eating well. Consuming the right amount of protein isn’t the only significant factor you need to consider. In particular, meats are a great source of iron and zinc, which support healthy red blood cells and a strong immune system. Saturated fats are often found in animal sources of foods, such as red meat, poultry, and full-fat dairy products. Your 7-Day Running Meal Plan. If you run first thing in the morning, have a small, carb-rich breakfast 20 to 30 minutes before you head out the door. Evidence shows that these fatty acids increase total blood cholesterol and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, increasing the risks of cardiovascular issues. 6 p.m. massaged kale salad with beets, brown rice and grilled chicken. Simply consume essentials and avoid overeating. Half-Marathon and marathon runners might need to shoot for at least 1.2 grams of protein per lb. Here is a list of some of the most common sources of carbohydrates, along with portion size and exact content. Just don’t resume work, life, or whatever, on an empty growling stomach. I know I’m boring with all these scientific terms, but just bear with me. By following a balanced diet, you’ll ensure that you’re consuming all the essential nutrients that your body needs to function properly and optimally. As a general rule, a healthy diet should be (1) high in the complex carbohydrates, (2) moderate in lean protein, and (3) sufficient in healthy fats. If you think that soda cans and chocolate bars would be in this category, you’re right. Now that you have a basic understanding of the essential sources of fat, it is time to reveal the evil villain of the dietary fat world: trans fats. In fact, your carbs needs in grams will vary according to many factors, including your training level, training intensity, fitness goals, and personal physiology and preferences. Carbohydrates include sugars, cellulose, starches, and a host of other compounds found in living organisms. Study Says Whole-Fat Dairy Isn’t So Bad Afterall, Signs Your Vegetarian or Vegan Diet Isn’t Working, This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. Most plant-based sources, such as vegetables, beans, grains, and nuts are often deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids. Common sources of trans-fat rich foods include: Keep these fatty acids on the watch list. Take more and don’t blame anyone if you gain significant weight, especially if you are into junk food. And it’s the whole package that promotes good health and peak athletic performance. of bodyweight. distress—diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, bloating, gas—is the most common symptom of an intolerance or allergy, and runners have enough of that as it is. (Practically every food item you need to avoid if you’re serious about reaching your fitness and health potential). There are many ways and methods for guestimating calorie maintenance level. In other words, moderation is really about consuming the right amounts of foods at the right times while meeting your nutritional requirements and maintaining a healthy weight. Just be sure to limit your fiber intake before a big race, as it may cause GI issues. According to current guidelines, the average person should aim to consume about 0.6 to 0.8 grams of protein per pound of body weight. But you are no ordinary person, aren’t you? It’s not that they’re starving—most are taking in lots of calories and nutrients, but it’s in the form of energy bars, nutrient-enhanced drinks, and fortified packaged foods. These occur naturally in plant-based foods, such as grain, such as grains. Only nine of them are what’s known as the essential amino acids— the compounds that our bodies need but does not manufacture. Follow these six rules for a healthy runner’s diet every day, and your body will get everything it needs for better health and better running. That’s why too much of it results in weight gain (and one of the reasons low carb-diet are so popular). the unsaturated kind houses one or more double bond(s) between the carbon atoms (more on these distinctions in the upcoming sections). Likewise, they are a fundamental component of bone, organs, glands, skin, hair, and bodily fluids—except urine and bile. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL; 2012. The third classification of fats are saturated with hydrogen. Your diet could have all the characteristics above, but it might still lack variety, which is the second pillar of healthy, optimal eating. Discover exactly what to eat the day before a marathon with our vegan meal plan for runners. Gifts That Help Turn Data Into Performance Gains. For example, for a 2,300-calorie diet,  Make sure that least 1300 to 1500 of your calories come from carb sources every day. I’ve partnered with Anne Mauney MPH, a Registered Dietitian and marathon runner, to help you dial in the best diet and nutrition program for runners. And recently, low intake of fish (and omega-3 fats) has been associated with certain behavioral conditions in children, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Marathon Runner Diet Plan. Lance Armstrong's coach, Chris Carmichael, in his book "Food for Fitness,' recommends a meal plan for a training day that involves a 90-minute run and includes about 70 percent carbohydrates 1⭐⭐This is a verified and trusted source . Biochemically, monounsaturated fatty acids, also known as or MUFAs, contain a single, double bond in their fatty acid chain. Day 3 (rest day) 8 a.m. whole grain toast with eggs and avocado. Studies have shown that fiber from vegetable and fruit skins (which contain both soluble and insoluble fibers) actually blocks absorption of 3 to 4 percent of total calories consumed when eaten as part of a high-fiber diet. Is It Safer to Buy Packaged Fruits and Vegetables? if I was training for a marathon or even half marathon. The more double bonds a fatty acid contains, the more fluid it is. But it barely scratches the surfaces of performance nutrition. Once you master these three aspects of your diet, you’ll be on your way to success. As such, these compounds are needed to produce energy, maintain primary biological processes, and sustain life. We are talking about pure peanut butter without any additives like sugar, salt or oil. These and other pigments have been shown to lower your risk of cancer, heart disease, and Alzheimer’s, while also improving your memory. 1 most important source of nutrition if you want to lose weight through running. Runner's World participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites. Foods you’re familiar with, especially before a serious workout or race. Research has also linked monosaturated fats to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Being a runner means more than just logging the miles. Having your nutrition plan dialed in is equally important. They depend on many factors, including your fitness level, training intensity, body weight, physiology, and personal preferences. These bacteria, as well as a special fat in dairy called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), can also help alleviate constipation, improve symptoms of certain intestinal ailments, such as inflammatory bowel disease, and reduce the occurrence of yeast infections in women. In case you need more help, consider enlisting the help of a trained sports nutritionist or dietitian. Let’s dive a little deeper into each macronutrient and discuss their importance for runners. The fact is, most foods contain more than one, or a mix of carbs, proteins, and fats, in different amounts and ratios. The advanced plan (shaded boxes) is, according to Craggs, “for competitive runners who might be training five, six or even seven days a week but who struggle with niggles or injuries.” Both plans use the same intensity scale presented on page 56 in connection with the running plan. Yes, it’s pretty exhaustive guide, but I felt like I had to do it because the topic of nutrition for runners is that important. Before you start being creative, let’s get to know what variety I’m talking about. Just keep in mind that one gram of carbs contains four calories. Timing is the most important factor in a runner’s diet—right after the type foods you opt for. In fact, prolonged and/or strenuous training may boost dietary proteins needs to as high as one gram of protein per pound of bodyweight (or 1.9 grams per kilogram of body weight) per day. This helps you work out the average amount of calories from carbohydrates. You already know that eating fruits and veggies … One quick way to get an approximate estimate of what your daily calorie maintenance level is to multiply your current body weight in pounds by 14 and 18. Eat the right things at the right times, and you’ll run better. For example, a 170lb runner would require a daily calorie maintenance level of roughly 2400 to 3000 calories per day. Six servings of vegetables (Fresh, frozen, canned, and dried). Variety stands for opting for a wide range of foods from each main category every day to ensure a nutritious diet. Fish intake has also been linked to lower rates of depression. Instead, it’s the type of eating you should stick to for life. 1 whole-wheat English muffin topped with 2 tablespoons hummus and 2 slices tomato. Complex carbs, also known as polysaccharides, are starches made up of long chains of simple sugar units bonded together in what’s known as saccharide chains. 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